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消化系统疾病(Infantile Diarrhea).pdf
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    Infantile Diarrhea Infantile Diarrhea

    SUN SUN Mei Mei

    Pediatric Dept. 2 Pediatric Dept. 2nd nd Clinical College, Clinical College,China Medical University China Medical UniversityIntroduction Introduction

    1. 1. Definition: Definition:

    Infantile diarrhea is one of the most Infantile diarrhea is one of the most

    common diseases in infants and toddlers. It common diseases in infants and toddlers. It

    is not a definitely disease but a syndrome is not a definitely disease but a syndrome

    caused by infectious and non caused by infectious and non- -infectious infectious

    factors. Clinical manifestations are mainly factors. Clinical manifestations are mainly

    diarrhea and vomiting, in severe cases it diarrhea and vomiting, in severe cases it

    usually associated with dehydration and usually associated with dehydration and

    electrolyte and electrolyte and acid acid- -base base disturbances. disturbances.Major causes of death among children under five in Major causes of death among children under five in

    developing countries, 2002 developing countries, 2002

    18%

    15%

    10%

    5% 4%

    23%

    25%

    Deaths associated

    with malnutrition

    54%

    Acute respiratory infection Diarrhea

    Malaria Measles

    HIV/AIDS Perinatal

    Other Sources: The world health report 2003, WHO,Geneva.2. 2.Nomenclature: Infectious Nomenclature: Infectious

    Noninfectious. Noninfectious.

    The infectious diarrhea dose not include The infectious diarrhea dose not include

    that having legal name such as bacillary that having legal name such as bacillary

    dysentery, cholera and so on. Diarrhea caused dysentery, cholera and so on. Diarrhea caused

    by other infectious agents and unknown by other infectious agents and unknown

    pathogens may all be named pathogens may all be named “ “enteritis enteritis” ” and and

    should be defined with the name of the should be defined with the name of the

    specific pathogen. Such as specific pathogen. Such as enteropathogenic enteropathogenic E. E.

    Coli. enteritis, rotavirus enteritis. Coli. enteritis, rotavirus enteritis.3. 3. Predisposing age Predisposing age

    Peak incidence occurs in infants Peak incidence occurs in infants

    under two to three years of age. under two to three years of age.

    Especially under one year, which Especially under one year, which

    account for about half of the account for about half of the

    patients. patients.4. 4. Prevalent seasons Prevalent seasons

    Bacterial enteritis is most prevalent in Bacterial enteritis is most prevalent in

    summer. summer.

    Viral enteritis in autumn and winter months Viral enteritis in autumn and winter months

    but they may be occur all year round. but they may be occur all year round.

    Noninfectious diarrhea may occur at any Noninfectious diarrhea may occur at any

    season. season.Predisposing factors Predisposing factors

    1. 1. Immature digestive function Immature digestive function

    Low gastric acidity: Normally in adults and Low gastric acidity: Normally in adults and

    adolescents the majority of ingested bacterial adolescents the majority of ingested bacterial

    pathogens will be killed at the acid environment pathogens will be killed at the acid environment

    of stomach of stomach (pH 1.5 (pH 1.5- -2.0, <4) 2.0, <4) and can not get into and can not get into

    the intestine. but in infants the low gastric the intestine. but in infants the low gastric ......

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