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http://www.100md.com 2016年5月15日 《中国中药杂志》2016年第10期
     [摘要]人体肠道中栖息着数量庞大、种类繁多的微生物,这些微生物与其所寄居的肠道环境组成了肠道微生态系统。肠道共生菌群参与调控宿主的营养消化吸收、免疫应答、生物拮抗等一系列生命活动,且与多种疾病的发生发展密切相关。因此,维持肠道微生态系统的平衡对宿主的生理健康显得尤为重要。中药有效成分代谢转化后,肠道菌群使其代谢产物更易被吸收,甚至有减毒或增毒作用,进而发挥不同的生物学效应;同时,中药也能调节肠道菌组成,保护肠黏膜屏障,从而恢复肠道稳态。作者检索了近15年中药与肠道菌群相互作用的相关研究文献,综述了肠道菌群的分类,肠道菌群失调与疾病的关系,肠道菌群对中药有效成分代谢及生物活性的影响以及中药调节肠道菌群失调等方面,并对基于多组学技术研究中药作用机制的策略进行了展望。

    [关键词]肠道菌群;中药;有效成分;疾病;代谢;相互作用

    [Abstract]A large number and wide varieties of microorganisms colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract They construct an intestinal microecological system in the intestinal environment The intestinal symbiotic flora regulates a series of life actions, including digestion and absorption of nutrient, immune response, biological antagonism, and is closely associated with the occurrence and development of many diseases Therefore, it is greatly essential for the host′s health status to maintain the equilibrium of intestinal microecological environment After effective compositions of traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by human intestinal bacteria, their metabolites can be absorbed more easily, and can even decrease or increase toxicity and then exhibit significant different biological effects Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medicines can also regulate the composition of the intestinal flora and protect the function of intestinal mucosal barrier to restore the homeostasis of intestinal microecology The relevant literatures in recent 15 years about the interactive relationship between traditional Chinese medicines and gut microbiota have been collected in this review, in order to study the classification of gut microflora, the relationship between intestinal dysbacteriosis and diseases, the important roles of gut microflora in intestinal bacterial metabolism in effective ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and bioactivities, as well as the modulation effects of Chinese medicine on intestinal dysbacteriosis In addition, it also makes a future prospect for the research strategies to study the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicines based on multiomics techniques

    [Key words]intestinal microbiota; traditional Chinese medicine; effective ingredients; disease; metabolism; interaction

    doi:10.4268/cjcmm20161002

    人的皮肤、消化道、呼吸道、泌尿生殖道等部位寄居着种类和数量繁多的微生物,包括细菌、真菌、寄生虫及病毒,其中绝大多数微生物生活在人体消化道内[1]。与人体共生的微生物绝大部分是由细菌菌群组成的,在人体胃肠道中共生着超过1 000种,总质量约15 kg的细菌[2]。定植在肠道内的细菌的细胞总数约1×1014个,是人体自身细胞数量的10倍[3],如此庞大的细菌群落被当作是人体的超级“器官”[4]。从基因层面上看,人体自身约23万个基因,而胃肠道内的微生物基因总数至少是人体的150倍[5]。因此,正如Joshua Lederberg提出的“人体是由真核细胞与体内共生的微生物群落共同组成的超级生物体(superorganism)”[6]。正常情况下,人体与其体内共生菌相互作用并构成相对平衡的统一体。“肠道元基因组(gut metagenome)”与人体自身基因组共同影响人体的病理生理和药物代谢[78]。 (祖先鹏 林璋 谢海胜 杨鸟 刘心如 张卫东)
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